Several things have become clearer over the years.
One is that the CIO role is not a technology job, it is a business value job. In this way, of course, it is really no different than any other executive leadership position. This requires the manager to both manage the performance of their vertical unit---their operational area, whether it is an SBU or a functional department like IT---while at the same time operate horizontally across the enterprise to optimize the company's total performance and thus maximize the aggregate value of the business. (The exact vertical-horizontal mix depends on the particular role and current operational challenges.)
Another is that organizations are the way they are because of their leaders. In other words, culture is not some magic all-pervasive "ether" that mysteriously infuses the workforce. Culture is simply the collection of habits, customs, stories, assumptions, and aspirations that the leadership has promoted, supported, and sustained. It is the way it is precisely because that is what leadership wants and expects, whether consciously or not. For example, ineffective leaders are often totally unaware of the effect they have on their colleagues, and are amazed to learn that what they think is positive behavior actually is viewed negatively.
Accordingly, high performance organizations are, in fact, high performance precisely because they have high performance leadership. In other words, you get what you are. Companies perform at a high level only because (and until) the leadership performs at a high level.
As a result, high performance is not about advanced technologies, or best practices, or the latest sound-bites.
It is about leadership.
This is because if the process infrastructure, governance practices, and process maturity are not up-to-snuff, then they will fix it. They will solve those problems in an optimal manner precisely because they are high performance individuals themselves. That's what they do. That's who they are.
A corollary to this second point is that high performance leaders tend to share several important characteristics. Characteristics that can help locate this talent in your company. The most central of these characteristics is the preeminence of values over behavior. That is, their leadership approach fixates on a few fundamental principles---sometimes articulated, sometimes implied---that define a collection of preferences for what is important, for what the organization stands for (and against). This is in opposition to the much more prevalent approach that is behavior based, that is, focusing on control, micro-management, and on altering the way people actually do their work, changing their methods, practices, tools, etc.---with the idea that this will make them better.
The problem with the behavior based approach is that it forces a set of "solutions" that presuppose a shared understanding of the "problem". And if the populace does not share that same sense of the problem, and they often don't, then, to them, the prescribed "solution" is not really an answer for them. In fact, it is a burden, another unwanted administrative intrusion into their world.
On the other hand, people with a sense of shared values will naturally seek out the tools and methods that are consistent with their common value system.
A second characteristic of high performance leaders is their emphasis on learning. This comes from their insatiable curiosity about how things work and don't work, why things are the way they are. This tends to also include a strong desire for challenging long-held assumptions and for fact-based decision making. This characteristic also shows up in their desire for a collaborative workforce---an environment where ideas matter more than rank or title, and where everyone has a piece of the truth.
Thirdly, these individuals have a very tight, almost laser-like, focus on customers and how best to deliver value to them, whether these are the external enterprise customers or the many internal customers. This customer centric bias informs much of their thinking about priorities, and in particular sharpens the dialogue about what really adds value, since in this world the customer defines value, quality, and completeness, not the supplier. This external focus has a remarkably refreshing, simplifying, and cleansing effect on the entire organization.
Another characteristic that appears common is their sense of personal accountability, both for themselves and for their workers. This idea that we must absolutely honor all commitments becomes a reverence for doing exactly what we say we are going to do, without excuses, without surprises, starting with top management. This is a very powerful and compelling example for the whole organization. Further, these leaders provide safety and support for the workers so that everyone can constructively hold each other accountable for the decisions they make, including (and especially) top management. This characteristic also tends to promote an environment of ownership where responsibility (and authority) is delegated to the lowest level practical, and closest to the customer. This ownership generates strong feelings of personal responsibility for performance, continuous improvement, and getting better every day. A pride in workmanship naturally emerges.
Finally, high performance leaders, create sustainable high performance organizations because when they think about solutions they first think about strategy. They have a need to understand exactly where the company is going and what success will look like when they get there. This vision of a future state, while largely conceptual, is a powerful communication and motivation tool. Once the vision comes into focus, they turn their attention to the business and technology architecture that serves as the framework for realizing that strategy. This framework is a picture of a possible implementation of the strategy. Further, the architecture provides the organization with a blueprint for success. It shows how all the business pieces fit together and how they interact. In other words, this architecture defines the future business model that will deliver on the chosen strategy. But, even more, it becomes a road map for defining and prioritizing investment and actions. As such it serves as the overall strategic plan for the enterprise since the journey to the desired future state involves incrementally adding or replacing each architectural element with its improved solution. In this way, solutions are never simply tactical, short term disconnected fragments, but are integrated components of a unified whole that are always aligned with the business as they simultaneously advance the company, step by step, towards its goals.